We inform our kind customers that starting from September 1, 2023, purchases will be redirected to the new Parthenogen's shop in the web site parthengen.eu The new shop has improved functions and safety measures for the benefit of customers

Redostim

Endogenous production of hydrogen sulphide (H2S)

Mechanism of action

Redostim is based on the most advanced knowledge on the functioning of metabolic enzymes and their regulatory mechanisms. Starting from this knowledge, we have tested the administration of the various nutrient substrates that feed these enzymes and verified their effect with highly advanced mass spectrometry methods. We then interpreted the results obtained according to the specific genetic heritage of the subjects who took them in order to separate individual only effects from those that increased the synthesis of H2S in all subjects, regardless of individual genetics. It was a long and complex job but the solution is very simple to say: L-cystine, Taurine and supraphysiological doses of vitamin B6.

Substances contained in Redostim: L-cystine, Taurine and supraphysiologic doses of vitamin B6 (active form, pyridoxal 5 phosphate)

Cysteine is a semi-essential amino acid. Our cells produce it starting from homocysteine, a known pathological risk factor, but to meet the needs we depend largely on food proteins. It is the least common amino acid in proteins, there is a little more in vegetable ones, and insufficient food intake is possible if not common. Two cysteines present in two different points of a protein have the ability to bind to each other (disulfide bridge) and in doing so they confer the three-dimensional shape to the proteins. When we digest proteins that we eat, all the pairs of cysteines that formed the disulfide bridges of the protein detach from the rest while maintaining their bond. This molecule is called L-cystine and renders soluble the two cysteines that form it. L-cystine is absorbed, enters the circulation, and enters the cells as such. When needed, the cells cleave the link between the two cysteines and use them for: i) synthesis of new proteins; ii) synthesis of glutathione (GSH), the main cellular antioxidant; iii) release of H2S. Redostim contains L-cystine as a mean to physiologically increase the food intake of cysteines.

Taurine is a non-proteogenic amino acid (we do not use it for proteins) and is the end product of the process by which we get rid of any excess cysteines. This process is triggered very quickly by an enzyme, cysteine di-oxygenase (CDO). The intracellular concentration of cysteine is therefore strictly regulated. If taurine increases, however, it is capable of inhibiting the activation of CDO. Redostim contains taurine as a mean to inhibit the activation of CDO and, therefore, making sure that the cysteines administered in the form of L-cystine are effective in slightly increasing the level of intracellular cysteine.

The combination of L-cystine and taurine therefore has the effect of increasing the amount of cysteines available for alternative reactions, those which release H2S. In the absence of further demand to synthesize proteins, the excess of intracellular cysteine is directed to the synthesis of GSH, strengthening the antioxidant defences, and to a lesser extent to the reactions that release H2S.

Vitamin B6 is the essential co-factor of the two main enzymes that release H2S. These two enzymes work in two directions: on the one hand they transform homocysteine into cysteine, on the other they use cysteine and homocysteine to produce H2S. An increase in the level of vitamin B6 favors their action in the direction of the release of H2S. Redostim contains vitamin B6 in activated form, pyridoxal 5-phosphate, and in supraphysiological quantities to support a surplus of H2S release.

The combined effect of L-cystine, taurine and supraphysiological doses of B6 is an increase in the synthesis of GSH and H2S. However, H2S will be released only where and when it is needed in response to the regulating mechanisms. In other words, Redostim’s combination of micronutrients has the ability to make cells more responsive to H2S release signals but will not produce any release in the absence of such signals.

 

Mechanism of action of micronutrients in induction of endogenous H2S synthesis. L-cystine (cysteine-S-S-cysteine) is soluble and transported in the cell where it is hydrolysed in 2 cysteines to increase the intra-cellular cysteine pool. Taurine exerts an inhibitory effect on CDO and avoids the elimination of excess cysteine and further increases intracellular cysteine. Supraphysiological amounts of activated vitamin B6 (P5P) further stimulate CBS, and even more CSE, to use excess cysteines and any homocysteine within the endogenous metabolism for H2S releasing reactions. The final result is that the SH groups of the cysteines are converted into H2S (when useful and necessary) and into glutathione. Stimulation actions are indicated by green lines, inhibitory actions are indicated by red lines, effects by blue lines.